Natural sources of this product
Composition and Analysis
Bee Propolis is a product of exceptional therapeutic value, considered as one of the most effective drugs found
in nature. Propolis, also called "bee glue" or "Russian penicillin" is a beekeeping product very precious.
Consists of a mixture of substances resinous, sticky, green-brown or brown, with pleasant aroma of resin and balms.
This product is processed by worker bees after collection of organic products from at least 20 species of trees
which produce resinous secretions namely the buds of
trees (poplar, birch, alder, chestnut, beech, ash, pine, fir),
the young stems and branches, petiole the leaves and
bark (willow, plum). At this matters resinous, bee add
secretions of salivary gland which containing enzymes,
wax and other biochemical compounds.
Both color as well as the aroma but also chemical
composition of bee propolis varies depending on the
vegetal species from which have been collected the raw
materials . Harvesting is done in hot days with
temperatures above 20 C, when finished product
becomes plastic. From a hive, skillful beekeepers can
harvest a quantity of 100-400 grams of this product,
depending on the area. The work consists in the
scraping from the hive walls the layer of propolis
which shall be kept, then the form of lumps or as a
tincture in alcohol.
From the observations made over how bees collect this
product was found that they gather it in different colors
(white, yellow, red, green, brown, etc.), and transports as well on pollen on the rear legs. Language is not used
to collect and nor to the application this product.
Natural sources of this product is divided into two different groups:
1.The first group consists of resinous substances, derived in majority from plant buds. For harvest the bees use
mandibles after having with antennas have found the most appropriate the particle of propolis.
For harvest, the bee, after having caught particle, with the help of mandibles, it pulls back with your head elevated
until they particle on which took shall be stretched in very thin thread and it breaks. After that, with the legs
maneuvered the particle of resin and a stored in the pollen baskets. The operation is repeated.
When it are downloaded the baskets to hive, the bee, is helped by another that breaked with the mandibles one
piece from cargo and a deposited. This operation often takes place right on the flight boards, by the bees.
The harvest is made only when air temperature exceeds 20 ° C, because at this temperature the viscous matter
is softer and can be collected more easily.
2.The second group is formed by balsam from pollen released (during cracking and digest pollen grains from the
plants entomophile) and which is pushed of the valves proventriculus, accumulate in the chaps.
The balm is stretched by bees with the help of tongue on objects from the immediate vicinity of sapling.
During the processing of these resins with the help these mandibles, intervenes and secretion of mandibles
mandibular of the worker bees, during expressing resinous substances and the balm of pollen mixed with secretions of pharyngeal glands.
The tendency to make this product of bees is a character of race and ecotype and depends even the individual characteristics of some beehives.
Should be mentioned also that the species Apis florea and Apis dorsal do not use this product and some breeds from Apis mellifera as Apis mellifera
Lamarkii do not collect propolis.
The harvest by bees has a regional character. In colder areas and forest, harvesting is more pronounced towards the lowlands.
Also, autumn and spring the bee makes propolis more than just in the summer.
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